Author Archives: Robert Lawrence

About Robert Lawrence

In 2004 my life had a major change in direction and I became involved with protecting natural habitat. This has involved sensitive weed control in bushland areas to allow natural regeneration of native plants. This work was initially only as a volunteer, but I now have a business called Heritage Bushcare. I have wanted others to learn to appreciate and understand nature. To this end I published a book called Start with the Leaves about 50 common orchid species in the Adelaide Hills. I continue to look for ways to get people involved with nature conservation.

Winter at Mt Crawford Forest

To those who have visited the Mt Crawford area from Adelaide are usually left with an impression of an area that is noticeably colder and wetter.  I have had the pleasure of working in the area in the last couple of months and this impression has been reinforced, especially after getting drenched in heavy rain at my last visit.

IMG_20140620_093746

I took a picture with my mobile telephone showing the mist around us as we worked.  We were above the cloud base on the edge of a sandstone ridge.  It is easy to keep warm climbing up and down a slope like this.  We were removing feral pines that originated from the adjacent commercial pine plantations and you may be able to see one lying on the left of this image.

Diplodium robustum (12)

On a sunnier day earlier in the month I found a pair of flowers of Diplodium robustum, the Large or Common Shell Orchid.  These were on the ridge next to the Heysen Trail.  These, I am told, are taller than usual for the species and resemble a form that occurs in areas of mallee.

Diplodium robustum (7)

From the back the flowers are strongly striped with green and white.  These flowers were facing south.  Elsewhere there was a colony of about 300 plants with over 30 in flower or bud; the majority of these faced up the slope.  This appears to be a strategy to make it more likely for the flowers to be visited by the insect pollinators.  The pollinators are small insects called fungus gnats, which look like small mosquitoes and don’t eat at all in their adult stage.  Only the males are pollinators and they need to be large enough to trigger the labellum inside the hood of the orchid.

Diplodium robustum (4)

At the base of the two flowers I found these little rosette.  This, surprisingly, is the same species.  This plant will not flower this year; it is preparing to flower in a future year.  There is a smaller flower in the lower left of this picture that I did not notice until I started writing this post.  It looks like a bud almost finished forming.

Wurmbea latifolia (1)

Orchids are not the only interesting flowers.  This is one of my favourite lilies – Wurmbea latifolia ssp. vanessae (Broad-leaf Nancy).  This is a female plant with the dark ovaries seen in the middle of the flower.  The flowers are white with rich, hot pink colours near the centre.  This was the first one I found on the 7th of June.  By the 20th they were easy to find.  I am told that the peak of flowering is mid-July and that earlier flowering this year is a result of climate change.

I am looking forward to visiting the area next weekend and taking more photographs, if the wintery weather lets us.

Mayfly Mystery

The Mayfly Orchid is a small orchid with very dark reddish brown flowers with long, hair-like sepals.  It flowers from late July to August.  One might question what sort of insect was behind the naming of this orchid, which does not even flower in May.  Mayflies are an insect with which many of us are not acquainted.

Nemacianthus caudatus

Close view of a typical flowering Mayfly Orchid

One source attributed the naming or the orchid being similar to the long legs of a Mayfly.  However, a quick search in the Internet revealed that Mayflies have fairly short legs, as in the image below:

It turns out that it is the appendages on the end of the abdomen that the sepals of the Mayfly Orchid resemble.  Mayflies usually have three tails (two cerci, one middle filament), although the middle tail is rarely reduced or absent.  All the tails are longer than the body, thread-like and similar in size.  Thus the three tails correspond with the three long sepals of the Mayfly Orchid flowers.

This is only half of the story; mayflies occur in swarms and these resemble colonies of Mayfly Orchids.

Nemacianthus caudatus

A colony of Mayfly Orchids in the Adelaide hills

Mayflies are a sign of summer in parts of the United States of America Source: http://www.severnsound.ca/SSEA_Mayflies.htm

Adult Mayflies are short-lived.  Most live for one or two days, but some for only a few minutes.  They form mating swarms.  Some swarms are quite impressive, even on Doppler weather radar.

So you may want to keep a lookout for colonies of Mayfly Orchids in August and see if you can imagine a swarm of insects with three long tails on their abdomens.

An Orchid Survey at Halbury

Today I took part in a survey of an endangered population of Oligochaetochilus lepidus (Halbury Greenhood).  The area had been surveyed three years previously and the first task today was to find and mark the 20 metre grid.  We then went through and marked all of the plants in flower with little coloured flags.  There were two other species.  Oligochaetochilus pusillus (Small Rusty-hood) was smaller and had blunt reddish tips on the sepals.  Oligochaetochilus aff. excelsa (Dryland Greenhood) had much larger rosettes, thicker stems and was only in early bud stage.  Oligochaetochilus lepidus was almost all out in flower and had distinctive thin tips to the sepals.

Oligochaetochilus lepidus

After lunch I found a path of Oligochaetochilus lepidus.  After marking all that I could find I thought I should count them.  There were 45 in an area little more than a metre square.

Oligochaetochilus lepidus

After an initial search, a final search was done in each quadrat.  Then all of the coloured flags were collected and counted and a figure recorded for each quadrat.  I expect the results will show that there were several hundred plants in this 3 hectare area of mallee remnant vegetation.

This was an example of a citizen science project led by a botanist with ten others involved.

While there I took an interest in the other orchids: there was a population of several flowering Arachnorchis tensa (Inland Green-comb Spider-orchid) and a couple of colonies of Diplodium robustum (Large Shell-orchid) with flowers almost all finished.  There was also a scattering of plants of one of the Hymenochilus muticus group; it appears to be Hymenochilus pisinnus (Tiny Shell Orchid).  There were two bright pink Petalochilus carneus (Pink Fingers) that I found late in the day before driving home for an hour and a half.

Trial Orchid Monitoring at Belair National Park 1993-1997

April 2013 will be 20 years since a trial of orchid monitoring was done at Belair National Park so it seems like a follow up survey this year could be timely.  A five year study was conducted by members of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia (Bickerton et al 1998).  A follow up survey was conducted in 2007, 10 years after the completion of the previous survey (Bridle & Bridle 2009).

Grey Box (Eucalyptus microcarpa) woodland at Belair National Park in the Adelaide Hills.

Grey Box (Eucalyptus microcarpa) woodland at Belair National Park in the Adelaide Hills.

This post is adapted from Bickerton et al (1998) and is compiled with the assistance of Doug Bickerton who currently works in the Department for the Environment, Water and Natural Resources within the South Australian government.  A future post is planned to present the results and conclusions of the study by Bridle & Bridle (2009).

The original survey was focussed on determining the effect on orchids of removing Boneseed (*Chrysanthemoides monilifera), an environmental weed that invades bushland areas.  This post focusses more on what can be learnt about monitoring orchids.

In 1992 Karen Possingham (newly appointed as was Conservation Officer of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia (NOSSA)) and her husband, Professor Hugh Possingham (President of the Nature Conservation Society of South Australia from 1995-1998) encouraged NOSSA members to conduct an orchid survey trial, with the long-term view of developing a consistent survey method.  A secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in the response of native orchid populations to the removal of Boneseed.  This is one of the few attempts in Australia to collect long-term systematic data on orchids.  While they were interested in seeing the impact of weeding, they were also very interested to see if a volunteer group could consistently collect data over a long period of time.

The group chose an area of bushland in Belair National Park which was overrun by Boneseed.  Over a 12 month period NOSSA removed Boneseed from the area and during the next five years certain NOSSA members returned at regular intervals to monitor the orchid populations.

Diuris orientis (Wallflower Donkey-orchid or Bulldogs) is a common species at Belair National Park.

Diuris orientis (Wallflower Donkey-orchid or Bulldogs) is a common species at Belair National Park.

SITES AND METHODS

The area chosen for the survey is between Kurra Creek and Workanda Creek, in the northern section of Belair National Park.  In April 1993 they chose three locations (Sites A-C), and pegged out a 20 metre transect at each location.  The sites were all within 20 m of a walking track, and about 100 m apart.

Site A was in open low woodland that was weeded before 1993 and free of Boneseed at the time of the survey; a number of orchid species were present.

Site B was also in open low woodland, was previously heavily infested with Boneseed and was weeded in 1993; no flowering orchids were observed prior to weeding.

Site C was slightly elevated and was more wooded; it was weeded in 1994 and few orchids were present prior to weeding.

Each site was monitored regularly between April 1993 and December 1997.  At each visit, an area of 20 m2 immediately adjacent to the transect was monitored.  This was done by placing a 20 metre rope between the two fixed transect pegs; then a square grid measuring 1 m2 was placed at the beginning of the transect, to the left hand side, and the area within the grid was inspected for orchids.  Then the grid was placed on the opposite side of the transect, and one metre further along the rope.  This process was repeated on alternate sides of the rope, and at one metre intervals, to the end of the transect. By following this same process every visit, the group could ensure that exactly the same ground surface was being inspected each time.

A record was made of the number of orchid leaves, buds, flowers, and seed pods present within the grid.  The species of each orchid was also recorded in most cases, although only the genus was recorded if the species could not be identified conclusively (eg. if only a small leaf was present).  The group also made an informal survey of the surrounding area for five metres either side of the rope.  For the purposes of this report, only the data concerning the flowers in the 20 m2 formal survey area has been considered.  Data on leaves is ignored because of the difficulty in identification, or even finding some species, especially when leaves are small.

The total number of orchid flowers found at each site, for each year of the survey.

The total number of orchid flowers found at each site, for each year of the survey.

RESULTS

Total number of flowering orchids per site

At Site A (the previously weeded site) the total number of flowering orchids declined slightly between 1993 and 1995, from 66 to 50, nevertheless, the number had increased to 105 by 1997.

At Site B, no orchids were seen flowering prior to weeding.  A heavy infestation of boneseed was completely removed from this site, and the following year there were 33 flowering orchids. The number continued to increase each year, so that by 1997 the increase was more than five-fold (174 flowers).

The orchids in flower recorded at Site C declined from 8 in 1993 to 4 in 1994, but after weeding was completed, the overall trend was for an almost ten-fold increase in numbers, to 39 in 1997.

Initial perusal of above graph suggests that the flowering rates of the three sites are different.  The data was not tested for a significant difference between sites, because a time series of five points (in this case five years) is too short to expect a statistically significant result.  The survey would need to be run for at least seven years before a trend could be proved.  The results of a linear regression and coefficient of determination at each site are available to anyone interested.

Number of species of orchids per site

The number of orchid species found flowering at Site A declined from 8 in 1993 to 4 in 1995.  However, this trend was reversed in the next two years, and by 1997 there were 10 species flowering at Site A.  At Site B the trend was similar to that of Site A.  At Site C there was no increase in the number of species flowering between 1993 and 1995, however by 1997 twice as many species were recorded.

The number of orchid species found at each site, during each year of the survey.

The number of orchid species found at each site, during each year of the survey.

Genera Found at each site

At Site A there was a notable increase in Thelymitra flower numbers during the survey (see Table below).  Also three new genera (Orthoceras Arachnorchis, and Petalochilus although the last two of these were recorded as Caladenia species in most of the field notes) had been recorded in small numbers by 1997.  However, for all genera except Thelymitra the trend was for either minor or no increase in flowers.

Table 1 – The orchid genera found flowering at Site A, and the number of flowers found each year.

Genus

 1993

 1994

 1995

 1996

 1997

Corunastylis

3

3

1

Diuris

4

5

4

2

10

Glossodia

2

1

Leptoceras

1

Microtis

2

1

8

Orthoceras

1

1

Petalochilus

2

Thelymitra

54

52

43

78

82

In contrast, every genus found at Site B showed an increase in flowers over the five year survey period (see Table 2). Only three genera (Diuris, Microtis, and Thelymitra) were flowering at the site in 1993, but by 1997 another six genera were flowering. By the end of the survey period there were large numbers of Acianthus, Microtis, and Thelymitra at this site.

Table 2 – The orchid genera found flowering at Site B, and the number of flowers found each year. (Note that Arachnorchis and Petalochilus were both recorded as Caladenia sp. in most of the notes, but two flowers of Caladenia tentaculata are clearly indicated on one data sheet)

Genus

 1993

 1994

 1995

 1996

 1997

Arachnorchis

2

Acianthus

6

1

37

Corysanthes

4

Diuris

4

3

5

5

13

Genoplesium

1

1

5

Glossodia

1

Leptoceras

7

Microtis

1

1

34

42

Petalochilus

2

Thelymitra

28

46

44

40

61

Of the four genera found flowering at Site C in 1993 (Diuris, Glossodia, Leptoceras, and Microtis) none had increased appreciably in number by 1997 (see Table 3).  However, four new genera (Caladenia, Corysanthes, Pterostylis, and Thelymitra) had begun flowering here by 1997, and the number of Thelymitra in particular had increased noticeably.

Table 3 –The orchid genera found flowering at Site C, and the number of flowers found each year.

Genus

 1993

 1994

 1995

 1996

 1997

Caladenia

1

Corysanthes

7

Diuris

1

3

2

4

Glossodia

2

1

3

4

Leptoceras

4

1

1

2

Microtis

1

14

3

3

Pterostylis

1

7

Thelymitra

2

6

9

12

The information in Tables 1-3 above is summarised in Table 4 below:

Table 4 – This table shows the sites at which different genera were flowering, and the number of flowers found each year.

GENUS

SITE

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Acianthus

A

 

B

6

1

37

 

C

Arachnorchis

A

 

B

2

 

C

1

Petalochilus

A

2

 

B

2

 

C

Corysanthes

A

 

B

4

 

C

7

Diuris

A

4

5

4

2

10

 

B

4

3

5

5

13

 

C

1

3

2

4

Genoplesium

A

3

3

1

 

B

1

1

5

 

C

Glossodia

A

2

1

 

B

1

 

C

2

1

3

4

Leptoceras

A

1

 

B

7

 

C

4

1

1

2

Microtis

A

2

1

8

 

B

1

1

34

42

 

C

1

14

3

3

Orthoceras

A

1

1

 

B

 

C

Pterostylis

A

 

B

 

C

1

7

Thelymitra

A

54

52

43

78

82

 

B

28

46

44

40

61

C

2

6

9

12

DISCUSSION

In this discussion we will explore the value of the survey method used, and the impact of weeding on the orchid populations.

Experimental design

To assess the impact of Boneseed weeding in a more rigorous fashion, we would need to have a much larger number of more carefully chosen sites.  The ideal design would include four or five replicates of each treatment, where the appropriate treatments might be:

  • Previously weeded
  • Weeded at the start of the survey
  • Weeded during the survey
  • Not weeded

In addition to this, an ideal survey would also continue for about 10 years.  If such a survey method were to be used, the logistics of the task would be significant.  However we propose some changes to the method that was used, and these are listed below.

The survey method

If NOSSA were to survey multi-species orchid populations in the future, with a view to looking at the impact of habitat management, then we suggest the following variations in the method:

  1. Attempt to record the total number of individuals, using leaves and flowers at the time the species is flowering. If it is not possible to positively identify leaves for all species, then only record the flowering plants for some species.
  2. Four carefully timed visits per year, at the same time every year, is probably adequate.
  3. The whole 40 m2 should be marked and used to compile a simple species list.

By using this faster method, greater replication could be achieved.

The impact of weeding on the total orchid population

If we look at the total number of orchid flowers found at each site (see Figure 3), it is evident that Sites B and C improved at a much greater rate than Site A (which had been weeded previously).  It is also apparent at first glance that Site B, which was weeded just before observations began, fared better than Site C, which was not completely weeded until 1994.  Admittedly the total Site B population improved by 178 flowers, compared with less than 39 at Site C, but the dominant Eucalypt trees near Site C were larger and they created more shade than at Site B.  Hence the environmental conditions are likely to be a confounding factor in the difference between all sites.

CONCLUSION

Despite the shortcomings of the survey method used, it appears that the removal of Boneseed from open Eucalyptus microcarpa woodland is beneficial to the populations of at least 50% of the orchid species known to occur in such habitats, and is not detrimental to any orchid species.  We urge NOSSA to explore the impact of other habitat management actions, using a revised version of the method described here.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to thank the National Parks and Wildlife Service for permission to carry out the survey at Belair National Park.  We also thank the volunteers who assisted in the survey, including (in alphabetical order) Roger Bidell, Phil and Thelma Bridle, Gerry Carne, Bill Dear, Cecil and Margaret Hollamby, Malcolm and Cathy Houston, Andrew and Kathryn Lloyd, Greg Miles, Ray Nash, Thelma O’Neil, John and Joan Peace and David Pettifor.  Their enthusiasm, skill, and patience showed that NOSSA is capable of doing repeatable systematic surveys of high quality.

REFERENCES:

Bickerton D, Possingham K & Possingham H (1998). The Effects of Boneseed Weeding on Orchid Populations at Belair National Park (South Australia) and a Trial of an Orchid Survey Method. Report for the Native Orchid Society of South Australia, Adelaide.

Bridle T & Bridle P (2009).  2007 Update on the Effects of Boneseed Weeding on Orchid Populations at Belair National Park 1993-1997.  Journal of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia, Vol. 33 (2): 16-19.

Dormancy of some terrestrial orchids

Philip Roetman, who is also interested in citizen science, directed me to a paper by Nancy Sather summarising 25 years of monitoring of a species of terrestrial orchids in Minnesota, in central North America next to Lake Superior.  I have picked out some points of interest that could be relevant to understanding terrestrial orchids in Australia.

Link for image

The plant monitored was the Platanthera praeclara (Western Prairie Fringed Orchid).  This is a species with up to 24 showy, white flowers on a spike reaching 1.2 metres tall.  It grows in remnant prairies and sedge meadows and sometimes emerges while areas are covered with water.

The paper was published at a conference in August 2012.  It summarises results from 1985-2010.  The number of plants counted peaked at over 10,000 with high counts in the years between 1993 and 1996.  Average counts in 2006 to 2009 were at 15% of those in the high years.

Dormancy is a fascinating feature of these orchids.  In one study, up to 12% of plants were dormant each year and 30% experiencing dormancy of one to three years.  At two sites the average life spans were 4-8 years with individual plants surviving 22-26 years with episodes of dormancy.

I have heard that individual plants of Calochilus cupreus (Copper Beard-orchid) in South Australia do not come up every year.  The remaining population is monitored once every year.

Figure

The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources uses the nested orchid monitoring protocol depicted in Figure 1 (above), with decreasing numbers of sites as intensity of monitoring becomes greater.  These Levels show the possibilities for monitoring for Australian terrestrial orchids.  Those interested in studying orchids will find want to read the detail about these levels and how the data were collected.

A study by Quintana-Ascencio et al. (2004) is cited in which dormancy is reported lasting “as long as eight years, with more than half of all dormancy episodes as short as one year. Rates of dormancy can be quite high. Across the full 25 years of the study at Burnham WMA, 57% of plants that ever flowered and 70% of plants that lived more than three years but never flowered exhibited at least one episode of dormancy.”

Sather (2012) reports that it was possible to observe plants enter and emerge from multiple periods of dormancy.

“Periods of extended dormancy may also help explain the well-recognized tendency for the locus of flowering plants to shift geographically within populations from time to time and the resurgence of orchid populations after near-disappearance or periods of low numbers. Variations in demographic characteristics of populations between sites and years exhibited in preliminary analyses of our data (Quintana-Ascencio et al. 2004) suggest that it is unwise to draw conclusions from short-term studies or to extrapolate between sites. Studies of 3-5 years are insufficient to frame development of recruits to flowering plants and periods of dormancy that last for three or more years.”

Our orchid photographs

I took my first photographs of native orchids in February 2005 at a monthly general meeting of the Native Orchid Society of South Australia (NOSSA).  Orchid growers bring their flowering plants to the monthly meetings to show them and to compete for the best orchids.

2005 Feb 017

This is one of my first photographs of an orchid taken with
a digital camera without a flash in February 2005.  This is a Sarcochilus hybrid.

My aim at the start was quite simple.  I just wanted to get to know the names of the orchids, because I did not know any of them at all.  Three of my photographs from the February meeting turned up in the electronic version of the March NOSSA Journal, including the one above.

In the March 2006 issue of the Journal, because there were few plants at the meeting to photograph, the Editor compiled a page of photographs of orchid leaves which I had taken on a field trip to Scott Conservation Park the previous winter.  Some of these same photographs appear in my book, Start with the Leaves, including the two of the photographs on the front cover.  One couple told me that they took this page with them into the field to identify orchids before they flowered.

Leporella fimbriata 005

This beautiful, newly emerged leaf of Leporella fimbriata is one of my first orchid
photographs taken in the field.  It features prominently on the cover of my book.

My reasons, then, for photographing orchids were so that I could get to know them, and to share them with others.

Incidentally, some of the flowers are strikingly beautiful.  When my children were helping me prepare the book, they were not happy with pictures that just showed the features relevant for identification; they wanted each photograph to be attractive and balanced.

We went on NOSSA field trips to learn about orchids and photographed them to help with this.  We went with our compact cameras while the photographic enthusiasts took their SLR cameras and their tripods.  We found the digital cameras to be adequate for our purposes and all of the pictures on this blog have been taken with either a compact digital camera or a smart phone.

In May 2011 NOSSA began having a photographic competition to give members the opportunity to share their best photographs.  I entered my favourite photograph of Diuris orientis, which I regard as the most photogenic of our orchids because of its size and depth of rich colours.  This photograph was included in the header in an earlier version of the banner for the Trees For Life website.  This was the first photograph to win this competition.

Diuris orientis 026

Diuris orientis photographed in full sunlight on 4 October 2005.
Notice the splendid rich colours.

We have seen a wonderful selection of photographs from members of NOSSA at the general meetings since this first competition.  The only prize is to have the photograph displayed for a month on the NOSSA website.  Unlike most of the followers here who share their photographs on the net, most of the participants have not shown their pictures before.  This event has been about sharing photographs rather than winning prizes.

The people who judged the orchids at the general meeting had set an example of having two of them speak about the orchids that had been “benched.”  So, the practice with the picture competition has been to use this as an opportunity to have somebody speak about the orchids photographed.  There was also an informative Journal article about the monthly winning photograph and a similar post on the NOSSA website.  This educational aspect makes the competition worthwhile.

The pictures displayed at the meetings are only seen by the 30-40 people attending the monthly meetings, but I hope a larger audience will be able to see them.

What bothers me is the thought of hundreds of photographs stored on home computers that have hardly been seen by anyone and are just waiting for a hard drive to crash when they will be lost for ever.  Some may be historical showing orchids where they no longer occur.  I would like to explore this idea on a later post.

Monitoring orchids

I am delighted to have been invited to be an author on OrchidNotes and this is my first post.

Native Orchids are fascinating and beautiful.  There is an amazing variety, as posts on this website show.  Many are quite small and easily overlooked, but they are often surprisingly easy to find.  They commonly like open areas and occur next to walking tracks in national parks.  Others are more elusive and only occur in special locations.

Glossodia major

Part of a large population of Glossodia major (Purple Cockatoo)

Many orchids are highly adapted and have very limited habitat requirements.  They will flourish when the conditions are right, but they will disappear when the conditions change. This means that conserving orchids is important.  They will be lost for ever if there is indiscriminate modification of areas of habitat and future generations will miss out.  If orchid habitats are kept intact, then habitat for a great variety of flora and fauna will also be protected.

We have met many people with a love for orchids in their natural environment, including those of you who follow this site.  Many people have been keeping lists of species that they find each year at their favourite orchid sites.  Some have huge collections of photographs that hardly anyone sees.

What these people have been doing is observing species diversity.  This is an important measure of the health of an ecosystem, but there is much more that could be observed in a systematic manner that uses native orchids to measure and understand processes happening in the local ecology.

Oligochaetochilus arenicola locations (4)

Monitoring sites could be established to observe changes in orchid populations from year to year.  These could document changes in the number of plants of each species.  The timing of emergence of leaves and flowers could change from year to year with different weather conditions.  Pollination rates could provide information about the insects that the orchids depend on.  Indeed, pollinating insects are yet to be observed for some species.  The proportion of plants flowering changes from year to year.  Orchid populations are not static, and a population may disappear from one site and a new one may appear elsewhere.  All of these observations can be made with the common orchids.

Oligochaetochilus arenicola locations (3)

Individual orchids have been found and flagged ready for counting.

It needs to be said that there are two main risks in drawing attention to orchids.  One is that some people dig up orchids that they like and they dig them up from the local habitat.  This is tragic and foolish because the orchids are highly specialised and usually are very difficult to grow in cultivation.  The other problem is trampling of the orchids and the surrounding plants by people seeking to observe them.  Both of these issues need to be considered carefully.

I am organising the design of orchid monitoring programs.  These could involve a combination of trained scientists and volunteers.  I am interested in finding out how much people would be interested in being involved in orchid monitoring using disciplined and systematic methods to collect important information about the orchids and their habitat.

Glossodia major 26