Category Archives: pedunculata

The little fellow

Pterostylis pedunculata – Maroon-hoods

Pterostylis pedunculata

This is an attractive little greenhood.  It has a distinct maroon top on the flower and its sepal.  I’ve only seen this orchid with a single flower per stem.  It is a reasonably common orchid, growing in most regions of South Australia, as well as in Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.

Pterostylis pedunculata

It can often be found in open areas of woodlands, and colonizes easily.  It has a relatively long flowering time, first appearing in late July, and sometimes still flowering up until November.  There is a small rosette of leaves at the base of the plant.  The leaves are crinkled on the top, and spaced wider apart than on other Pterostylis species, such as P. nutans or P. curta.

This is one of the easier orchids to grow.  It is quite a hardy little fellow.  Often this orchid can be introduced to sites through mulch.  The picture on the left shows a maroon hood which was found last year (2012) in the heart of the Adelaide city CBD.

Below is a pretty amazing colony growing in someones front lawn.  So for those who really want to grow orchids, this is one of the easier ones to grow.  (But don’t remove them from the wild, as that is illegal.)

An unusual colony growing in a suburban front lawn. Special thanks to Gordon Ninnes for permission to use his picture.

An unusual colony growing in a suburban front lawn.
Special thanks to Gordon Ninnes for permission to use his picture.

Pterostylis pedunculata

Know Them

Orchids of the Mount Lofty Botanic Gardens

Australia is a rich resource for orchids, especially terrestrial orchids which make up 82 percent of all the Australian orchids.  Terrestrial Orchids are found, mainly below the tropics in grasslands, heath lands, and eucalyptus forests.  Many are deciduous coming up in autumn/winter, flowering in winter/spring and dying down in summer.  Most rely on fungi to survive, and for germinated to occur.

What makes an orchid?

Orchids are always made up of five main segments: a labellum, column, two sepals and a dorsal sepal and two petals.

How do orchids reproduce?

Most orchids need to be pollinated by native bees, wasps and sometimes ants.  The introduced European Bee, because of its size, does not pollinate the flower, but can instead damage or destroy it.  Some orchids do not require a pollinator and are thus called self pollinating.

Orchids in South Australia

There are many different orchids; in fact, South Australia is home to over three hundred different species, some of which are yet to be described.  The Mount Lofty Botanic Gardens yields a variety of orchids, which will be covered in this leaflet.

Arachnorchis tentaculata King Spider Orchid

This species is relatively common in the Mt. Lofty Ranges, with flowers reaching ten centimetres across.  It can easily be distinguished by clubs on the end of its petals and sepals.

Diuris pardina Spotted Donkey Orchid

This attractive flower is distinguished by the spots on its sepals and labellum.  It received its common name as its petals reminded the English settlers of donkey ears.

Diuris orientis Wallflower Donkey Orchid

This distinctive orchid can be distinguished by its bright colours and particularly its labellum, which can be a shade of deep purple.  This species is also referred to as the Bulldog Orchid.

Diuris orientis x pardina Pioneer Donkey Orchid

It is not unusual to find hybrids of the donkey orchid.  It is often between these two species and can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from Diuris pardina.

Glossodia major Cockatoo Orchid

This purple flower is often found in fields, and is very common in the Mount Lofty Ranges.  It does vary in colour from purple to a pure white, with the different varieties growing together.

Pterostylis pedunculata Greenhood

This winter flowering orchid is often found in dense colonies which can number over a hundred plants.  It can be found in early spring in the Mt. Lofty Botanic Gardens.

Microtis arenaria Onion Orchid

This green flower breaks out of its cylindrical leaf.  Many people find the Microtis family difficult to identify due to its minute size.

Thelymitra rubra Sun Orchid

This pink sun orchid is one of three pink sun orchids.  It can be distinguished by the tufts on the top of the column.  It opens freely on warm days, when the temperature is over 25 degrees centigrade.

Thelymitra brevifolia Pepper Top Sun Orchid

This sun orchid has a distinctive red top on its column.  It can also be distinguished by red edges on its short broad leaf.  Its flower is smaller than Thelymitra rubra.

Thelymitra parviflora Sun Orchid

This common sun orchid has a blue flower and can be confused with a number of other blue sun orchids.  Like all sun orchids, it only opens on warm days, as this is when the pollinators are present.

There are many other types of orchids not considered in this leaflet.  However some field guides on orchids will enable identification of orchids which can be found in other parks and reserves around Adelaide or beyond.

Protecting Orchids

It is always a pleasure to find orchids but they do need to be protected and conserved.  Orchids can easily be eliminated by weeds which choke them.  Consequently, if orchids are found, it is an indication that the surrounding bush is good quality.  It is also important not to pick orchids.  Not only is it illegal, but orchids need their flowers to reproduce.

This is from a leaflet about the common orchids in the Mount Lofty Botanic Gardens.  For the printable version, see here.

Returning… (Part 3)

For today I will be finishing the series of posts I’ve done on this small roadside site, that I visited back in September.

For other parts see: Previous visit, Part 1, Part 2

I was hoping to see some Thelymitra, sun orchids in flower, but they were not ready even though the day was warm.

There were some Pterostylis nutans, nodding green-hoods flowering.  They really do nod in the wind!

There were some other green-hoods up, one being Pterostylis pedunculata, the maroon green-hood and another being Linguella nana.

What was most satisfactory was seeing some of the Linguella nana had formed capsules.  That means there will be more plants there in coming years.

Orchids in odd places

Orchids generally prefer to grow somewhere like here:

However, I have found some orchids in some very different places.  For instant I’ve been areas that have been cleared and later planted out.  You must realize that orchids cannot cope with that much disturbance.  However I’ve seen orchids there, native Australian orchids and they have not been planted either.  There is a very logical reason.

Often these sites have had a layer of wood cuttings placed over the top of them.  The orchids have entered these clippings most likely as seed, and the seed germinates at the new location, and yes, you have some orchids.

The most common to do this is the onion orchid, Microtis arenicola.  This is probably one of the most common orchids.  This one also enjoys regular watering!

Another hardy species which does this is the Pterostylis pedunculata or the maroon greenhood.  This orchid was found very close to Adelaide’s CBD, and I’ve seen pictures of it growing in someone’s front lawn.

Both of these species are just coming out now.

Here is an orchid which did not realize that it was in a tennis court.  This is Dipodium roseum, the hyacinth orchid, a summer flowering orchid, which I will probably discuss in more detail closer to that season.

Then of course, there are those orchids which I have no idea why, or how they end up where they are.  Below are some leaves of Thelymitra (sun orchid) and Glossodia major (Blue Cockatoo orchid) growing in a tree.